Modernized Monk
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Religious Studies Department, SCU
Style Sheet
 
 
 
 
Table of Contents
 
 
1. Paper Format
2. Notes
3. Bibliography
4. Language, Grammar & Style
5. Standard Abbreviations


1. Paper Format
 
1.1. Identifying Information
First Sheet of Small Assignments
(1-6 pages)
Cover Sheet of Research Paper
Your Name
SCTR # or PMIN #
Name of Assignment
Date of submission

Title

Body of Paper begins here


Name of Assignment

Title of Paper














Name(s)
SCTR # or PMIN #
Class Date/Time
Date of Submission
If you are using a separate title page, be sure that it is not paginated as page one of your document. Here's how to do that in Microsoft Word:.
 
Video Demo: Paginating when you have a separate cover page
  VideoDemo
PC Word 04–07
VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
 
1.2. Basic Formatting
All papers are to be typed and double-spaced. Font face is Times or Times New Roman, and font size is 12-point. The first line of every paragraph should be indented 1/2 inch (it's best to use the tab), and there should be no extra space between paragraphs (just the usual double space). Spell check each paper before submitting it, and check the spelling a second time by reading through the paper. It is also a good idea to ask a friend to read it before you turn it in; s/he may help you catch errors.
 
Microsoft Word allows you to format "styles," so that in one step you can set the font, spacing and tab parameters for the body of your paper (the "normal" style)
 
Video Demo: Formatting the body of your paper using styles
    VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
You can also use styles to format headings or create your own styles for your paper. This is especially useful in longer papers.
 
Video Demo: Formatting headings using styles
    VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
 
1.3. Margins
The body of the paper should have one-inch margins at top and bottom and 1.25-inch right and left margins.
 
 
1.4. Pagination
Include pagination in either the upper right corner or the bottom center of each page. Do not include your name as part of the header. Make sure that page one is the first page of your paper rather than the title page; see the directions for the title page (above) on how to do this.
 
 
1.5. Length
See the directions for the specific assignment.
 
 
1.6. Stapling
Submit the paper stapled in the upper left corner. Do not use paper clips or fold/tear the corner.
 
 
 
 
2. Notes
 
This section explains when and how to footnote, and offers examples of footnotes for different types of sources (Bible/Qur'an, books, essays in books, journal articles, online sources, course lectures, interviews, films, audio files, and newspaper articles). Footnoting is different from the MLA and APA styles you may have used; those style guides require parenthetical references in the body of your paper with full references on a "Works Cited" page. A few parenthetical references are allowed in this class, but almost all of your sources will be cited in footnotes instead. If you want to skip the when and how and get right to the examples, just click on the links above.
 
 
2.1. When to Footnote
Every time you allude to, paraphrase or cite someone else's ideas, you need to footnote your source. If you directly cite a source and the citation extends for four or more lines in your paper, you should blockquote the citation. Here is a video demo of how to do that in Microsoft Word:
 
Video Demo: Formatting blockquotes using styles
    VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
The intro and concluding sentences of every paragraph should be your own ideas, and so generally should not have footnote references. Avoid footnoting multiple sentences in your paragraphs: strive to generate your own ideas to sustain the flow of your own paper's logic. If you must rely on a particular author for many ideas in a single paragraph, indicate that reliance in the topic sentence of your paragraph, and place one footnote reference at the end of that sentence. This signals that the entire paragraph depends on that author and that citation. Here is an example:
 
     The complex and evolving history of the term "jihad" is the subject of an important study by Michael Bonner.1  Bonner examines the early history of teachings about jihad and the practice of jihad. (and so on - the rest of the paragraph is primarily a summary of his ideas)
 

   1 Michael Bonner, Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2006; French original, Paris: Téraèdre, 2004).
 
 
2.2. How to Footnote
The footnote reference, a raised Arabic numeral, should follow the reference and its punctuation in the body of the paper. Insofar as possible, footnotes should not interrupt the sentence but be placed after the period at the end. Avoid multiple footnotes in a single sentence. Use one footnote reference at the end of the sentence, and clearly indicate the multiple references in this one footnote.

Footnotes should be numbered consecutively, single-spaced, and located at the bottom of the page on which the reference occurs; endnotes should also be numbered consecutively and single-spaced, but are listed on a page entitled "Endnotes" at the end of your paper. Any good word processing program should be able to handle footnotes. Here are video demos for how to insert footnotes in different versions of Microsoft Word.
 
 
Video Demo: Inserting footnotes
  VideoDemo
PC Word 04–07
VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
Be sure to select automatic numbering and Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3 rather than i, ii, iii).
 
The footnote reference should also be raised in the actual note at the bottom of the page/end of the paper. Again, any good word processing program should suprascript the number automatically.
 
Here are some video demos for how to use Microsoft Word to help you format the size, spacing and indentation of your notes.
 
Video Demo: Formatting the footnotes
  VideoDemo
PC Word 04–07
VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 


Video Demo: Formatting the footnotes using styles
    VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 


Video Demo: Formatting the footnote separator line
    VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
 
2.3. Parenthetical Notes and Foot/Endnotes
You may choose to put your notes at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or together at the end of the paper (Endnotes). Parenthetical references to sources in the body of your paper are not to be used, with two exceptions.
 
  • The first exception is if you are referring to a biblical passage. You may do this in parentheses in the body of your paper, using the standard abbreviations for the biblical books listed below (Gen 1:1; notice that the reference precedes the final punctuation). The first time you do this, it is customary to use a footnote at the end of the parenthetical reference and to cite the version of scripture you are using.

  • The second exception is if your chief topic in the paper is a contemporary work of fiction (e.g., Toni Morrison's Sula or Richard Wright's Native Son). In this case, you may refer to a shortened title of the work and the reference page number in parentheses.
 
 
2.4. Examples
Examples of footnotes/endnotes for books, articles in books, journal articles, websites, and other sources follow. There are specific requirements for what bibliographic information must appear and how it should be presented. That is, content and format both matter. Section 2.2 covered the "how to"; this section focuses on the content of your notes—that is, the elements of the entry and the punctuation between them. You have to do this manually—there aren't any shortcuts.
 
 
Notice that the first line of every entry is indented about five spaces, but otherwise the footnote/endnote text runs from margin to margin. Notice also that, in listing the name of the publisher, you do not need to include words like "Press" or "Publishing Company" (see note 1) unless the publisher is a university press (see note 3). Footnote number 5 refers to an article in a common scripture journal, the Catholic Biblical Quarterly; references to common journals (italicized) and serial publications (not italicized) can be abbreviated using the list of standard abbreviations below.
 
If you refer to a particular article or book more than once, do not rewrite the entire reference or use "ibid." or "op. cit." Instead, cite the reference fully the first time, and for subsequent references list the author's last name, a shortened but recognizable form of the article or book title, and the page number(s) from which the citation is drawn. Examples are given below for both types of citation.
 
 
Bible or Qur'an
 
The Bible or Qur'an are handled differently from other sources. For these primary texts, you only need to footnote a citation of the Bible or Qur'an if you actually quote from the words of the text. Thus this example would not need a footnote, because there's no direct citation of the words of the referenced passage:
 
Mark’s Jesus is aware that his power has been used, but is unaware who received it (Mk 5:30).
 
but this example would (and the footnote is illustrated below):
 
Mark’s Jesus is aware that his power has been used, but is unaware who received it: “Who has touched my clothes?” (Mk 5:30).1
 

   1 Donald Senior, ed., The Catholic Study Bible (NAB) (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).
 
Notice that the publication information is the same as for any book: the chief author or editor, the title of the version of the scripture you're using, the city, publisher and date. Two differences from normal book citations: (1) include an abbreviation for the version of the Bible you're using (here, NAB stands for New American Bible), and (2) you don't need a page reference because you've given the reader the chapter:verse in your paper, which is all they need to find the passage.
 
Footnote your Bible or Qur'an version ONLY the first time you cite from the text. The reader presumes that every other quote will be from this same book. But do continue to reference the book, chapter and verse in parentheses in the body of your paper.
 
 
Books
 
In the examples that follow, two samples are given for each entry. The first is the format that should appear the first time you cite the source, while the second entry is the shortened form of the note you can use for subsequent references. For an actual samply bibliography that gives a better sense of the appearance, click here.
 
     1 Jonathan Magonet, Form and Meaning: Studies in Literary Techniques in the Book of Jonah (Sheffield: Almond, 1983) 11-19.
 
     2 Magonet, Form and Meaning, 11-19.
 
 
Essays in Edited Volumes
(that is, in books with essays by various authors edited by one or more people; cite by essay author, not volume editor)
 
     3 William Klassen, "Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity: The State of the Question," in Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity, vol. 1, Paul and the Gospels (ed. Peter Richardson; Studies in Christianity and Judaism 2; Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1986) 5-6.
 
     4 Klassen, "Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity," 12.
 
 
Essays in Books by a Single Author
 
     5 Maxine Lavon Montgomery, "Toni Morrison, Sula," in The Apocalypse in African-American Fiction (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996) 74-87.
 
     6 Montgomery, "Toni Morrison, Sula," 85.
 
 
Journal Articles
 
     7 Susan R. Garrett, "Exodus from Bondage: Luke 9:31 and Acts 12:1-24," CBQ52 (1990) 656-80.
 
     8 Garrett, "Exodus from Bondage," 656-80.
 
 
Online Sources
 
     9 Susan R. Garrett, "Exodus from Bondage: Luke 9:31 and Acts 12:1-24," CBQ 52 (1990) 656-80; online, Catholic Biblical Quarterly online, http://www.cba.org/cbq/1990/52-656.
 
     10 Garrett, "Exodus from Bondage."
 
     11 Susan Sachs, "Egypt Makes It Easier for Women to Divorce Husbands," The New York Times on the Web, International (28 January 2000), online, http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/
0128egypt-divorce.html, 1 March 2000.
 
     12 Sachs, "Egypt Makes It Easier for Women to Divorce Husbands."
 
 
Course Lectures
 
     13 Catherine Murphy, "Augustine's Conversion," Course lecture for SCTR 011, Origins of Western Religion, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California, November 29, 1999.
 
     14 Murphy, "Augustine's Conversion."
 
 
Interviews
 
     15 Arturo Hinojosa, Interview by author, 13 February 2000, San José.
 
     16 Hinojosa interview.
 
     17 Director Esmerelda Ortiz of Sacred Heart Community Services, Interview by author, 18 February 2000, San José. Notice that interviews with employees rather than clients use both the proper name and office of the person interviewed.
 
     18 Director Ortiz interview.
 
 
Films/Motion Pictures
 
     19 The Passion of the Christ, prod. Mel Gibson, Bruce Davey and Stephen McEveety, dir. Mel Gibson, 126 min., Icon Productions, 2004, DVD.
 
     20 The Passion of the Christ, 2004.
 
 
Audio Files downloaded from online
 
     21 Billy Graham, Evangelism and the Intellectual, Part 1, American Sermon Recordings, 1 April 1962; 24 min., 19 sec; from SermonIndex.net, Revival Sermons at SermonIndex.net; MPEG, http://www.sermonindex.net/ modules/mydownloads/viewcat.php?cid=118 (accessed 1 June 2007).
 
     22 Graham, Evangelism and the Intellectual.
 
 
Newspaper Articles online
 
     23 Susan Sachs, "Egypt Makes It Easier for Women to Divorce Husbands," The New York Times on the Web, International (28 January 2000); online, http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/
0128egypt-divorce.html.
 
     24 Sachs, "Egypt Makes It Easier for Women to Divorce Husbands."
 
 
 
3. Bibliography
 
3.1. Examples
Examples for books, articles in books, and journal articles follow. Notice, in contrast to footnote format, that a hanging indent rather than a tab is used. In order to make sure that this is apparent below, the width of each line has been artificially shortened; do not shorten the lines in your bibliography. Also note, in contrast to footnotes, that the author's name is given last first, and that periods separate the items (video demos how to create hanging indents and alphabetize your bibliography follow the list of examples). For an actual sample bibliography that gives a better sense of the appearance, click here.
 
 Type of Source
This column is not part of your entry
 How the Bibliographic Entry Should Look
The first line should be flush left; use a hanging indent for the other lines of each entry, and take each entry to the right margin.

 Bible 
Senior, Donald, ed.  The Catholic Study Bible, NAB.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
 Book 
Magonet, Jonathan.  Form and Meaning: Studies in Literary
Techniques in the Book of Jonah.  Sheffield: Almond, 1983.
 Essay in an Edited Volume
cite by essay author/title, not book editor/title)
 
Klassen, William.  "Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity: The
State of the Question."  In Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity, vol. 1, Paul and the Gospels (ed. Peter
Richardson; Studies in Christianity and Judaism 2; Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press,
1986) 1-19.
 Essay in Book by a single author 
Montgomery, Maxine Lavon.  "Charles Chesnutt, The Marrow
of Tradition."  In The Apocalypse in African-American
Fiction (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996)
15-27.
 Subsequent Essay in same book 
--------.  "Toni Morrison, Sula."  In The Apocalypse in African-
American Fiction, 74-87.
 Journal Article  
Garrett, Susan R.  "Exodus from Bondage: Luke 9:31 and
Acts 12:1-24."  CBQ 52 (1990) 656-80.
 Same Article, found online 
Garrett, Susan R.  "Exodus from Bondage: Luke 9:31 and
Acts 12:1-24."  CBQ 52 (1990) 656-80.  Online, Catholic Biblical Quarterly online, http://www.cba.org/cbq/1990/52-656.
 Course Lecture  
Murphy, Catherine.  "Augustine's Conversion."  Course
lecture for SCTR 011, Origins of Western Religion. Santa Clara
University, Santa Clara, California. November 29, 1999.
 Interview 
Ortiz, Esmerelda, Director of Sacred Heart Community
Services.  Interview by author, 18 February 2000, San
José.
  Film/Motion Picture 
The Passion of the Christ.  Produced by Mel Gibson, Bruce
Davey and Stephen McEveety; directed by Mel
Gibson  126 min.  Icon Productions, 2004.  DVD.
  Audio File downloaded from online source 
Graham, Billy.  Evangelism and the Intellectual, Part 1.  
American Sermon Recordings, 1 April 1962; 24 min.,
19 sec.  From SermonIndex.net, Revival Sermons at
SermonIndex.net. MPEG, http://www.sermonindex.net/
modules/mydownloads/viewcat.php?cid=118
(accessed 1 June 2007).
  Newspaper Article online 
Sachs, Susan.  "Egypt Makes It Easier for Women to Divorce
Husbands."  The New York Times on the Web, International
(28 January 2000).  Online, http://www.nytimes.com/
library/world/mideast/0128egypt-divorce.html.
 
You can format the bibliography in a couple of steps once the content is all there you've manually conformed the information to the style sheet. Here's how to indent everything and alphabetize your list quickly in Microsoft Word:
 
Video Demo: Formatting your bibliography
  VideoDemo
PC Word 04–07
VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
Video Demo: Alphabetizing your bibliography by author's last names
  VideoDemo
PC Word 04–07
VideoDemo
Mac Word 2008
VideoDemo
PC/Mac Word 10–11
 
 
 
3.2. When You Need to Use a Bibliography
If you are writing a short paper (under 7 pages) and if you refer to your sources in the footnotes, you do not need to include a separate bibliography. If, however, you write a short paper and read several sources that are not in the footnotes, or if you write a longer paper, you should include a separate bibliography page, on which you list all of the sources you read.
 
 
3.3. Order of Entries
All items should be listed in alphabetical order on a page entitled "Bibliography." If you have more than one item by the same author, you do not need to retype the author's name after the first citation. Use eight hyphens followed by a period to replace the name for each subsequent occurrence.
 
 
3.4. What Information to Include
References should be as compact as possible. This means that you do not need to include "p." or "pp.," and you do not have to include the word "Press" in the publishers' name (exceptions: Scholars Press and University presses).
 
 
 
4. Language, Grammar & Style
 
4.1. Arguments
If you make a claim about what a text says or means, always include a reference to the biblical or Qur'anic text on which you are basing your claims. See Abbreviations below for the proper way to cite these texts.
 
 
4.2. Parts of Speech & the Most Common Errors
 
4.2.1. Subject-Verb Agreement
The finite (main) verb of the sentence must agree in number with the noun that is the subject of the sentence.
 
 
Incorrect
Correct
  The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse appears in the Book of Revelation. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse appear in the Book of Revelation.
 
4.2.2. Passive Voice
The verb may be expressed in the passive voice:
Muhammed was persecuted by the Meccans.
Muhammed is in the subject position.
 
Alternatively, you may choose an active voice when you construct sentences:
The Meccans persecuted Muhammed.
Muhammed is in the object position.
 
Both are appropriate, but do not use the passive voice too frequently: the active voice is more dynamic and compelling, and makes for better reading.
 
4.2.3. Consistent Verb Tense
Verb tense indicates the time in which an action took place. Within a paragraph or paper, the standard finite verbs (i.e., those that carry the story or argument) should all be in the same tense.
 
 
Incorrect
Correct
  Amos left Tekoa in the southern kingdom and went to Bethel in the northern kingdom. He preaches against the high priest and the King of Israel.
Either all present tense:
Amos leaves Tekoa in the southern kingdom and goes to Bethel in the northern kingdom. He preaches against the high priest and the King of Israel.
 
or all past tense:
Amos left Tekoa in the southern kingdom and went to Bethel in the northern kingdom. He preached against the high priest and the King of Israel.
 
4.2.4. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
A transitive verb communicates action and is always followed by an object (direct or indirect) which receives the action:
 
The prophet ate the scroll.
The king sent Isaiah a message.
 
An intransitive verb does not have an object that receives action:
 
The columns of the temple fell during the earthquake.
 
4.2.5. Unclear Antecedent
Pronouns refer to a prior noun. Relative pronouns (who whose, whom, which, what, that) relate one part of a sentence to a word in another part of a sentence. They show that a dependent clause describes a noun in the independent clause. Personal pronouns (s/he, they) can function in a similar manner between two sentences. If there are several prior nouns and a relative or personal pronoun follows, the antecedent noun to which the pronoun refers may be unclear.
 
 
 
Incorrect
Correct
  Israeli Jews claim Jerusalem as their holy city, but the Palestinian Muslims and Christians do as well. They believe they have a more ancient -- and therefore more legitimate -- claim. Israeli Jews claim Jerusalem as their holy city, but the Palestinian Muslims and Christians do as well. The Israelis believe they have a more ancient -- and therefore more legitimate -- claim.
 
4.2.6. It's/Its (contracted verb/third person personal pronoun, possessive case)
When you write "its," ask yourself whether you mean "it is." If you do, use an apostrophe to contract the pronoun and verb. If you do not mean "it is," do not use the apostrophe. (But see 3.2.7.)
 
 
Incorrect
Correct
 
Contracted Verb
Its the end of the world as we know it.

It's the end of the world as we know it.
 
Personal Pronoun, possessive case
The divine council rendered it's judgment on the apostates.

The divine council rendered its judgment on the apostates.
 
4.2.7. Contractions
Contractions of subjects and verbs (they're, for "they are," he's for "he is," etc.) are common in everyday speech, but should be avoided in formal writing.
 
4.2.8. Position of Prepositions
Prepositions (about, for, from, in, of, etc.) should be positioned at the beginning of the prepositional or relative clause and not at the end of a sentence.
 
4.2.9. Capitalization
The words "Bible" and "Qur'an," and the names of biblical books (but not the adjective "biblical") are capitalized. Capitalize races, nationalities, languages and religions. "God" is generally capitalized, but "gods" is not.
 
 
4.3. Punctuation
 
4.3.1. Periods, Commas, Colons and Semi-Colons
Rule
Example
  1. Use two spaces after a period.
 
  1. Place periods and commas inside quotation marks.
Jesus said, "I am the bread of life."
"I am the bread of life," Jesus said.
  1. If you make a parenthetical reference to a biblical passage in the body of your paper, the period follows the parentheses.
Herod thought that Jesus was John the Baptist risen from the dead (Matt 14:1-2).
  1. A comma is used to separate two independent clauses (each with its own subject and finite verb).
Jonah said he was a prophet of God, but he refused to preach God's message to Nineveh.
  1. But if one of the two clauses is not independent (i.e., if it is missing either the subject or a finite verb), no comma is needed.
Jonah said he was a prophet of God but refused to preach to Nineveh.
  1. Commas are also used to separate items in a series (a list of 3 or more items). A comma is not necessary before the final conjunction.
Typical forms of prophetic speech fill the book of Amos: oracles, woes, visions, laments, hymns and call narrative.
  1. A semi-colon is used to connect two independent clauses which are not connected with a coordinate conjunction (i.e., both clauses could "stand alone" as sentences).
Paul is called "the apostle to the Gentiles"; he was one of the first to bring the gospel message to the Greek-speaking world.
  1. Use two spaces after a colon; use one space after a semi-colon.
 
  1. Unlike periods and commas, semi-colons and colons are placed outside quotation marks.
 
    Colons introduce a list, but should never separate verbs or prepositions from their objects. (see prior example)
Incorrect:
Jesus taught: crowds, Pharisees, scribes and his own disciples.

Correct:
Jesus taught several groups: crowds, Pharisees, scribes and his own disciples.
4.3.2. Quotation Marks
Rule
Example
  1. Quotation marks are placed before and after direct quotations. If a quotation occurs within a quotation, use single quotation marks for the internal quote.
"Hear this word, you cows of Bashan, you who oppress the weak and abuse the needy; who say to your lords, 'Bring drink for us!'"
  1. If more than one paragraph is quoted, quotation marks are placed at the beginning of each paragraph but at the end only of the entire quote.
"'Come to Bethel and sin, to Gilgal, and sin the more.

"Each morning bring your sacrifices, every third day, your tithes. For so you love to do, O men of Israel."
  1. If you quote a text in a paper and the quotation runs for four or more lines of the page, set the quote off from the text with triple spacing; indent the entire quote one inch in from each margin, and single space the quotation. With the quote so clearly off-set, no quotation marks are needed. If the indented quote is from the Bible or Qur'an, the parenthetical reference follows the period.
Matthew's Jesus believes that the prophets looked forward to the kingdom Jesus was inaugurating:

But blessed are your eyes, because they see, and your ears, because they hear. Amen, I say to you, many prophets and righteous people longed to see what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it. (Matt 13:16-17)
 
 
4.4. Gender-Inclusive Language
 
4.4.1. Biblical Usage and Contemporary Usage
The Bible and the Qur'an were written in cultures that were patriarchal. This has implications for the use of language and imagery in these texts, as well as for the sorts of stories considered worthy of inclusion. In terms of language, it means that masculine pronouns are often used generically to refer to men and women. Even when the original Greek and Hebrew pronouns and nouns are grammatically neuter, contemporary Bible translators, who also often work from a patriarchal framework, translate the words with English masculine equivalents (English has no neuter case).
 
If you are quoting the Bible or the Qur'an, use the language as you find it there.
 
But in your own writing, accustom yourself to mean what you say when it comes to gender. This has become the custom in standard English, in legal documents, and in the media in our country. If you mean men and women, use true generic terms like "humanity," "people," or "persons" (not mankind). You may also use "s/he" in this class to avoid more cumbersome options. Otherwise, say men if you mean men and women if you mean women.
 
What follows are some tips to help you avoid the most common problems.
 
4.4.2. Omission of Women
Case Improper Usage Alternatives
Generic usemankind humanity, human beings, people
 man's achievementshuman achievements
 the best man for the job the best person for the job, the best man or woman for the job
 man-madeartificial, synthetic, manufactured
 the common manthe average person, ordinary people
Generic occupational termschairmancoordinator (of a committee or department), moderator (of a meeting), presiding officer, head, chair
 businessman, fireman, mailman business executive or manager, fire fighter, mail carrier
 policeman/policewomanpolice officer
Third-person pronoun   
  1. Recast into plural
Give each worker his pay as soon as he is finished. Give workers their pay as soon as they are finished.
  1. Reword to eliminate unnecessary gender problems
The average lawyer is worried about his billable hours. The average lawyer is worried about billable hours.
  1. Replace the masculine pronoun with one, you, or (sparingly) he or she, as appropriate
If the student is not satisfied with his grade on the essay, he may rewrite it for credit. A student who in not satisfied with her or his performance on the essay may rewrite it for credit.
  1. Alternate male and female examples and expressions
Let each board member participate. Has he had a chance to talk? Could he feel left out? Let each board member participate. Has she had a chance to talk? Could he feel left out?
  1. In all but strictly formal usage, plural pronouns have become acceptable substitutes for the masculine singular
Anyone who wants to go to the game should bring his money tomorrow.Anyone who wants to go to the game should bring their money tomorrow.
  1. Assume the readers are both male and female
Invited guests and their wives are asked to arrive by 8:00 p.m.Invited guests and their spouses are asked to arrive by 8:00 p.m.
 
4.4.3. Diminution of Women
Case Improper Usage Alternatives
Parallel description lady lawyer lawyer
  Running for SCCAP president are Bill Smith, the academic All-American, and Kathie Ryan, a vivacious junior. Running for SCCAP president are Bill Smith, the academic All-American, and newspaper editor Kathie Ryan.
  Senator Reid and Ms. Feinstein Harry Reid and Dianne Fienstein, or Mr. Reid and Ms. Feinstein, or Senators Reid and Feinstein
Trivialization I'll have my girl do it. I'll ask my secretary to do it.
 ladies women (unless used with gentlemen)
  coed student
  man-sized job/appetite big job/healthy appetite
  old wives' tales superstitions
 
4.4.4. Sex-Role Stereotypes
Case Improper Usage Alternatives
Occupations Writers become so involved in their work that they neglect their wives and children. Writers become so involved in their work that they neglect their families.
  Sally's husband lets her teach part-time. Sally teaches part-time.
Roles the elementary teacher . . . she elementary teachers . . . they
  the principal . . . he principals . . . they
 Ask your mother to make cookies for the field trip. Ask your parents to make cookies for the field trip.
Personal characteristics While lunch was delayed, the ladies chatted about last night's meeting. While lunch was delayed, the women talked about last night's meeting.
 
4.4.5. Quoting Sources that Use Exclusive Language
Sexist language in direct quotation cannot be altered, but other alternatives are available:
  1. Avoid the quotation altogether if it is not really necessary.
  2. Paraphrase the quotation, giving the original author credit for the idea.
  3. If the quotation is fairly short, recast it as an indirect quotation, eliminating exclusive language.
 
4.4.6. The NRSV
This most recent ecumenical translation of the Bible (1990) attempts to modify the exclusive language of the KJV/RSV wherever possible. It retains the male pronoun for God, but broadens references to persons where the meaning of the original language seems to be inclusive.
 
The above ideas were adapted from guidelines initially written by the National Council of Teachers of English, pursuant to a resolution passed by the Council in 1974.
 
 
 
5. Standard Abbreviations
 
5.1. Biblical Books
(no punctuation is necessary; titles are not italicized or underlined; follow reference with ch:vs [no space is needed on either side of the colon])
 
  Gen
Exod
Lev
Num
Deut
Josh
Judg
1 (or) 2 Sam
1 (or) 2 Kgs
Isa
Jer
Ezek
Hos
Joel
Amos
Obad
Jonah
Mic
Nah
Hab
Zeph
Hag
Zech
Mal
Ps (or) Pss
Job
Prov
Ruth
Cant
Eccl (or) Qoh
Lam
Esth
Dan
Ezra
Neh
1 (or) 2 Chr
1-2-3-4 Kgdms
Add Esth
Bar
Bel
1 (or) 2 Esdr
4 Ezra
Jdt
Ep Jer
1-2-3-4 Macc
Pr Azar
Pr Man
Sir
Sus
Tob
Wis
Matt
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Rom
1 (or) 2 Cor
Gal
Eph
Phil
Col
1 (or) 2 Thess
1 (or) 2 Tim
Titus
Phlm
Heb
Jas
1 (or) 2 Pet
1-2-3 John
Jude
Rev
 
 
5.2. Qur'an (there is no need to specify the name of a surah; simply designate by surah:ayat [no space is needed on either side of the colon]).
 
 
5.3. Versions of the Bible
(The NRSV version is the standard critical text used in biblical scholarship)
 
  CSB The Catholic Study Bible (= New American Bible version)   NJB New Jerusalem Bible
BS 195 .J4 1985
  KJV King James Version
PS 3569 .T473 K5
  NRSV New Revised Standard Version
BS 191.5 .A1 1991 .N49
  NAB New American Bible Ref.
BS 192.3 .A1 1971, 1981, 1987
  REB Revised English Bible
BS 192.16 1989 .N48 1989
  NASB New American Standard Bible (not in Orradre)   RSV Revised Standard Version
BS 191 .A1 1962 .N4
  NIV New International Version
BS 1965 1976 (NT only)
  TEV Today's English Version
BS2095 .T56 1968 (NT only)
 
 
5.4. Commentaries and Reference Works
(follow plain text or italic text as given below)
 
  AB Anchor Bible
BS 192.2 .A1 1964 .G3
  IDB Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, G. A. Buttrick, ed.
Reference BS 440 .I63
  ABD Anchor Bible Dictionary, D. N. Freedman, ed.
BS 440 .A54 1992
  JBC The Jerome Biblical Commentary, R. E. Brown, ed.
BS 491.2 .B7
  ANEP Ancient Near East in Pictures, J. B. Pritchard, ed.
BS 1180 .P833
  NJBC The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, R. E. Brown, ed.
BS 491.2.N485 1990
  ANESTP Ancient Near East Supplementary Texts and Pictures, J. B. Pritchard, ed.
BS 1180 .P826
  OTP Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, J. H. Charlesworth, ed.
BS 1830 .A3 1983
  ANET Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. B. Pritchard, ed.
BS 1180 .P83 1955
  PCB Peake's Commentary on the Bible, M. Black and H. H. Rowley, eds.
BS 491 .B57
  DBSup Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplément
Orradre Research Col BS 440 .V69
  PG Patrologia graeca, J. Migne
  EncJud Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971)
Reference DS 102 .8.E53
  PL Patrologia latina, J. Migne
  HBC Harper's Bible Commentary, W. Neil, ed.
BS 491.2 .N4 1962
  TDNT Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds.
Reference BS 2312 .K5
  HBD The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, P. J. Achtemeier, et al., eds.
Reference BS 440 .H235 1996
  TDOT Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, G. J. Botterweck and H. Ringgren, eds.
BS 440 .B5713
  IB Interpreter's Bible
BS 491.2 .I55
     
 
5.5. Common Journals and Serials
(follow plain text or italic text as given below)

AASOR Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research JSAMES Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies
ACW Ancient Christian Writers
BR 60 .A35
JSNT Journal for the Study of the New Testament
BS 410 .J678
ADAJ Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan JSNTSup Journal for the Study of the New Testament-Supplement Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
AJA American Journal of Archaeology
(Orradre catalogues by title)
JSOT Journal for the Study of Old Testament
BS 410 .J68
AJAS American Journal of Arabic Studies JSOTSup Journal for the Study of the Old Testament-Supplement Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
AJISS American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences   JSP Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha
AJT American Journal of Theology
BR 1 .J65
JSPSup Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
ALBO Analecta lovaniensia biblica et orientalia JSSR Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion
BL 1 .J6
ALGHJ Arbeiten zur Literatur und Geschichte des hellenistischen Judentums JTS Journal of Theological Studies
BR 1 .J8
AnBib Analecta biblica LCC Library of Christian Classics
(Orradre catalogues by title)
AnBoll Analecta Bollandiana LCL Loeb Classical Library
(Orradre catalogues by title)
ANF The Ante-Nicene Fathers
BR 60 .A49
MW Muslim World
AnOr Analecta orientalia Neot Neotestamentica
ANTJ Arbeiten zum Neuen Testament und Judentum NHS Nag Hammadi Studies
ASCE Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics
BJ1189 .A451
NovT Novum Testamentum
BS 410 .N6
ATR Anglican Theological Review
(Orradre catalogues by title)
NovTSup Novum Testamentum, Supplements
(Orradre catalogues by title)
BA Biblical Archaeologist
BS 620 .A1 B5
NPNF Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers
(Orradre catalogues by title)
BARev Biblical Archaeology Review
BS 620 .A1 B52
NTS New Testament Studies
BS 410 .N4
BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
(Orradre catalogues by title)
PEQ Palestine Exploration Quarterly
DS 101 .P15
Bib Biblica
(Orradre catalogues by title)
PhRev Philosophical Review
B 1 .P5
BibRev Bible Review
BS 410 .B58
PSTJ Perkins (School of Theology) Journal
BR 1 .D28
BJRL Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester
Z 921 .J643
RB Revue biblique
BS 410 .R3
BJS Brown Judaic Studies RechBib Recherches bibliques
BR Biblical Research
(Orradre catalogues by title)
RelS Religious Studies
BL 1 .R43
BTB Biblical Theology Bulletin
(Orradre catalogues by title)
RelSoc Religion and Society
AS 30 .S252
BZ Biblische Zeitschrift RelSRev Religious Studies Review
CBQ Catholic Biblical Quarterly
(Orradre catalogues by title)
RevQ Revue de Qumran
CBQMS Catholic Biblical Quarterly-Monograph Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
RevScRel Revue des sciences religieuses
BX 802 .R43
Comm Commonweal
AP 2 .C6897
RSR Recherches de science religieuse
CRINT Compendia rerum iudaicarum ad novum testamentum
(Orradre catalogues by title)
SBLASP SBL Abstracts and Seminar Papers
(Orradre catalogues by title)
CSCO Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium SBLDS SBL Dissertation Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
DJD Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
(Orradre catalogues some by title)
SBLMS SBL Monograph Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
ETL Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses
(Orradre catalogues by title)
SBLRBS SBL Resources for Biblical Study
(Orradre catalogues by title)
EvQ Evangelical Quarterly
(Orradre catalogues by title)
SBLSBS SBL Sources for Biblical Study
(Orradre catalogues by title)
ExpTim Expository Times
(Orradre catalogues by title)
SBLSP SBL Seminar Papers
(Orradre catalogues by title)
FC Fathers of the Church
(Orradre catalogues by title, BR 60.F3)
ScrHier Scripta hierosolymitana
(Orradre catalogues by title)
FFNT Foundations and Facets: New Testament
(Orradre catalogues by title)
SecCent Second Century
BR 165 .S42
HI Hamdard Islamicus
BP 1 .H344
SNT Studien zum Neuen Testament
HTR Harvard Theological Review
BR 1 .H4
SNTSMS Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
HUCA Hebrew Union College Annual SOTSMS Society for Old Testament Studies Monograph Series
(Orradre catalogues by title)
IEJ Israel Exploration Journal SR Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses
BL 1 .S8
IJMES International Journal of Middle East Studies
DS 41 .I55
StABH Studies in American Biblical Hermeneutics
(Orradre catalogues by title)
Int Interpretation
BR 1 .I57
STDJ Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah
(Orradre catalogues by title)
JAAR Journal of the American Academy of Religion
BV 1460 .N23
StudBib Studia Biblica
JAL Journal of Arabic Literature StudNeot Studia neotestamentica
(Orradre catalogues by title)
JBL Journal of Biblical Literature
BS 410 .J72
SUNT Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments
JBR Journal of Bible and Religion SWBA Social World of Biblical Antiquity
(Orradre catalogues by title)
JDS Judaean Desert Series TBT The Bible Today
(Orradre catalogues by title)
JECS Journal of Early Christian Studies
BR 165 .S422
TD Theology Digest
BX 801 .T48
JES Journal of Ecumenical Studies
(Orradre catalogues by title)
TS Theological Studies
BX 801 .T45
JETS Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society TToday Theology Today
BR 1 .T62
JFSR Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion
HQ 1393 .J68
TynBul Tyndale Bulletin
JJS Journal of Jewish Studies UNT Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
JMES Journal of Middle Eastern Studies VC Vigiliae christianae
BR 66 .V5
JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies
DS 41 .J6
VT Vetus Testamentum
BS 410 .V45
JPS Journal of Palestine Studies
DS 119.7 .J63
VTSup Vetus Testamentum, Supplements
(Orradre catalogues by title)
JQR Jewish Quarterly Review
DS 101 .J5
WI Die Welt des Islams
JR Journal of Religion
BR 1 .J65
WTJ Westminster Theological Journal
JRE Journal of Religious Ethics
BJ 1 .J67
WUNT Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
(Orradre catalogues by title)
JRelS Journal of Religious Studies WW Word and World
BR 1 .W67
JRH Journal of Religious History ZAW Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
BS 410 .Z4
JRS Journal of Roman Studies
DG 11 .J7
ZNW Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft
JRT Journal of Religious Thought
BJ 1 .J67
 
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